| An Intelligent Building provides
a productive and cost-effective environment through
the integration of Structure, Systems, Services,
No 'completely intelligent buildings' exist. Only
buildings with aspects of intelligence.
The major aspects of an intelligent building are:
- Telecommunication Systems
- Energy Management
This includes controlling access, surveillance and communication
(facilitation of response).
Access control: Regulates people going in
and out and monitors who goes where and when, with
an identification device, which identifies a person
by his unique biometric traits or by reading a unique
card associated with an individual. The archiving
of data of who has gone where and when as a database,
facilitates the emergency response. In case of a
break-in, the access control should not allow even
the authorised person to come in, till the concerned
authority studies the situation, so that evidence
is not tampered with.
Surveillance: Helps in monitoring movement
within and outside a building and its periphery
through camera (Closed-Circuit Television Camera)or
perimeter devices like intrusion alarms. Also helps
in alerting the security manager, in case of violation
of pre-set norms.
The safety considerations could be of different
natures - safety of human life, property etc. The
main source of concern for a safety manager could
be through the occurrences of fire which can happen
by means of electrical short-circuit, kitchen and
Fire protection systems pump water to the
areas where the fire occurs, so as to douse it automatically
through sprinkler bulbs and also manually through
the fire brigade.
Early warning systems like smoke detection
systems, detect the fire at a very early stage and
pinpoint to the caretaker where exactly it is occurring,
so that the fire is extinguished locally through
manual fire extinguishers. It's a audio-visual indication
or through the PC.
You also need to have clinical facilities inside
a big building, to provide first-aid.
Telecommunication Systems and Office Automation
Systems like the UPS, EPABX and the Public Address
system should provide the required support in the
event of security violation or fire. The telecommunication
system should be designed such that, in case of
a break-in, a signal is sent to the security manager.
The Public Address System is also used in case of
fire, to facilitate faster evacuation.
HVAC systems - Heating, Ventilation and
Air-conditioning systems cool the place according
to the occupancy or vary the temperature. The system
should be intelligent enough to sense the number
of occupants in a particular area to throw air accordingly,
through the air-conditioning ducts.
Lighting controls light up the place optimally
so that a person can work comfortably.
Elevator controls: High speed lifts, which
can carry people to the tallest point in the building
without the user feeling any fatigue.
Air-conditioning: The working of the cooling
system is made intelligent to sense the number
of occupants so as to the cool the place.For example,
if two people are sitting in a fully air-conditioned
hall designed for 50 people, the air-conditioning
should adjust accordingly.
The biggest drain of energy in the building is in
the form of electricity consumption, which is met
through the captive power plant built within the
compound. The high consumption of electricity is
the result of air-conditioning, lighting and running
other utilities such as safety and security systems.
An effective energy management system functions
by proper integration of all four parameters.
When it comes to the point of saving energy, it
is also quite natural to use sun-light and accordingly
adjust the internal lighting, so that adequate intensity
of lighting is provided for maximum comfort.
A building becomes intelligent by making each of
the 5 systems (Security, Safety, Telecommunication,
Comfort and Energy Management) respond for a given
contingency. In case of a fire, all the access control
doors should be released automatically facilitating
the occupants to evacuate in the shortest possible
time. To minimise the chaos that takes place during
an emergency, the early warning fire alarm system
is integrated to the public address system which
gives a pre-recorded location-specific evacuation
direction. All elevators below the location of the
fire will be automatically brought to the ground
floor, and those above the location should be taken
to the topmost floor, so that people can be evacuated
from the top.
Source : Race India and Datamatics